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TICKET CAISSE© LEXIQUE DE LA GMS

Synopsis
·  Affiliated
·  Cash and carry
·  Merchandizing Group
·  Referencing Power station
·  voluntary Chain
·  Retail trade
·  Wholesale
·  Organized independent trade
·  integrated Trade
·  Household consumption
·  ECR (in English "Efficient Consumer Response")
·  Frankness
·  Category Management
·  Department store
·  Specialist Department store
·  Health and beauty department Store
·  Educative and hobbies Department store
·  Toys department store
·  Do-it-yourself Department store - GSB
·  Electro-domestic Department Store
·  Textile Department Store
·  Trade association
·  Hard discount
·  hypermarket or Superstore
·  Garden-store
·  Self-service
·  Convenience Store, or corner shop
·  Variety Store
·  Brand names of distributor & MDD
·  hardware discounter or low assortment discount store
·  Merchandizing
·  Trade branch
·  Superette : "small supermarket"
·  Supermarket
·  Trade marketing
·  LTV - Long-term Value
·  Collect of informations
·  Dataware House
·  Datamining
Answers
·  Affiliates
An affiliate designates a person or entity who agrees, voluntarily or of right, at an organization, an association, in order to profit from the advantages offered by this one, with the proviso of carrying out the obligations which its statutes or its payments impose.
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·  Cash and carry
The cash and carry can be defined as being a method of sale in self-service practiced in a warehouse where the customers (professional retailers and users) choose the goods, pay at the exit and carry out their purchases immediately.
Example: Metro
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·  Central merchandizing
A central merchandizing is a structure managing the purchases of its associates retailers or wholesalers. This negotiation implies the study of the products, the search for suppliers, the negotiation of the purchases and, in certain cases, the activities of distribution, organization and documentation. The services are reserved for the exclusive use of the members of the Department store, to which they are bound by a contract of a certain duration. The first central merchandizing, Paridoc, that was created in 1930.
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·  referencing Power station
The term "referencing power station" indicates an organization having the aim of treating the negotiation with the suppliers and select products for its members.
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·  Voluntary Chain
A voluntary chain results from the regrouping of one or several wholesalers and retailers selected among their customers, in order to ensure the coordination of large or detail trade functions, to jointly organize the purchase and the sale, and to adapt consequently the management of business associated societies, while respecting the legal and financial independence of each one of them. The associates of a chain generally exploit a common sign.
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·  Retail trade
The retail trade indicates the economic activity of direct sale, in small quantities, without or after minor transformations of products or customer final services, i.e. with the consumers.

It includes Department Stores with food prevalence (hypermarkets, supermarkets...), the non food retail trade and all the retail trade except certain trade places (markets, long distance trade...) and employs approximately 1, 400,000 persons and carried out a sales turnover of 350 billion euros in 2000.
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·  Wholesale
Wholesale is the economic activity of purchase to the producers and storage of goods, in large quantity, before their sale to structures, except the final consumers. Wholesale employs approximately 1 million persons in 2004. Particularly dynamic, the wholesale saw its total sales turnover growing of almost 40 % since 1995 and volumes of almost 6 % per annum for a total value of 406 billion euros in 2003.
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·  Organized independent trade
This generic term qualifies the activity of trade exerted by franchised and co-operatives.
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·  Integrated Trade
The integrated trade indicates a form of trade where the company cumulates the functions of large and detail commerce: one employs the term of "clean store".
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·  Household consumption
The household consumption is the part of the income of households devoted to the use or the destruction of goods or commercial services, for the satisfaction of their needs.
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·  ECR ("Efficient Consumer Response")
The ECR is a technical way aiming at proposing an optimal advantage to the consumer, i.e. it implies the deployment of a joint strategy elaborated between distributors and industrialists to improve the effectiveness and the service to the consumer.
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·  Franchise
The franchise is a license of a commercial concern conceded by a company with another for the exploitation of an original brand name, methods or particular technical ways, while bringing the necessary assistance in the technical, commercial and management domains. The conceding company (known as a franchisor) perceives royalties and possibly an import duty, paid by the recipient (known as franchised) of the license.
3 types of franchises are noted: the franchise from production, the franchise from distribution and the franchise from service.
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·  Category Management
Category Management is a technical way of animation of a ray, where the product is considered in its mode and consumption universe.
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·  Department Store
A department store is a trade store of retail sale, having an important sale surface, freely accessible to the public, and offering in the same establishment the quasi totality of the consumer goods, generally sold on the counter, and certain services, in a bunch of rays presenting themselves as a specialized store. Some can have food rays constituting, according to their surface of sale, a supermarket integrated into the store. Generally established in urban zones, of a surface equal or higher than 2500 m², (exceeding the 40,000 m² for certain Parisian department stores), the department stores generally propose of 10,000 with more than 100,000 references. The first department store, the Good market, was open in 1852 in Paris. In 2001, the Galleries Lafayette, thanks to the restart of 18 Marks and Spencer stores, take a length in advance on their competitor of always, The Printemps (even if only three sites will take the sign " Galleries Lafayette "). Principal signs: Galleries Lafayette, Printemps, BHV, Bon Marché, Samaritaine
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·  Specialist Department Store
A Specialist Department Store is a store of retail sale generally located in periphery of the cities and which proposes in a sphere of precise activity (textile, sport, do-it-yourself, garden shopping store, etc.) a great choice of products.
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·  Health and Beauty Department Stores
Health and Beauty Department Stores are selective perfumeries generally depending on a chain of distribution. This section also includes the para -pharmacies. Principal signs: Marionnaud, Sephora, Nocibé, Douglas...
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·  Educative and hobbies Department store.
The Education and hobbies Department store depend generally of a distribution chain. The assortment of these GMS being more than 100 m² large, is composed of books, discs and multi-media products Principal signs: Fnac, Virgin, le Furet du Nord, Espace Culturel E. Leclerc, Cultura...
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·  Toys Department Stores
Toys Department Stores propose a surface of at least 100 m². They all depend to a chain of distribution. Principal signs: Toys R Us, Maxi Toys, Jouéclub, Picwic...
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·  Do-it-yourself - GSB Department Stores
A Do-it-yourself - GSB Department Store has a surface of sale of at least 300 m². Its assortment is composed of furniture hardware and building construction material for decoration, house and garden. Those proposing materials of second and carcass heavy work are generally frame-stores whose surface of sale includes most of the time a surface of exposure in the open air. Principal signs: Castorama, Leroy Merlin, Bricorama, Mr Bricolage, Bricomarché...
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·  Electro-domestic Department Store
The electro-domestic environment covers two Department Stores categories with at least 300 m², the electro-domestic one (which proposes a set primarily made up of white or white + brown) and the multi-specialist (who cumulates the piece of furniture and the electric household appliances). Principal signs multispecialists (electro-domestic + furnishing): Conforama, But . Principal exclusively electro-domestic signs: Darty, Boulanger, Connexion.
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·  Textile Department Store
Textile Department Store proposes articles of equipment for the person on a surface upper than 300 m². Principal sign names Kiabi, La Halle aux Vêtements, Gémo, Vêtimarché, C & A, H & M, Zara, WMK...
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·  Trade association
A Trade association is consisted of tradesmen, producers (or consumers) who join to carry out their joint purchases in order to obtain better conditions near their suppliers. The buying associations of tradesmen bring more and more to their members the assistance for methods of management, organization and promotion of their company.
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·  Hardware discount
The hardware discount is a form of sale which is today essentially reserved to the food self-service.
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·  "Hypermarket" or "Superstore"
A hypermarket is a store of retail sale, presenting in self-service and at keen prices, on a surface of sale equal or higher than 2500 m², an offer of foodstuffs varying between 3000 and 5000 references, and for the non food one, a set from 20,000 to 35,000 references. Its peripheral or suburban establishment explains the provision of the customers, of a layby. We distinguish sometimes a category of small hypermarkets (of which surface varies between 2500 and 5000 m 2²) under name "TGS" ("Very Large Supermarkets"): indeed, this category of stores seem to have more a part of proximity role than the real generalist store role intended by the use of the term "hypermarket"; the TGS, which generally make the dead end on a certain number of rays (large electric household appliances...), propose a set closer to the supermarkets than of the large hypermarkets. The first hypermarket was open in 1963, in the Paris area, in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, under the sign Carrefour. There is today 1,211 hypermarkets in France which represent nearly 7 million square meters. They are the Leclerc Shopping Centers which is today the first so much in a number of stores (419) that on the surface of sale (1.9 million m2) followed-up by Carrefour (213 stores and 1.8 million m²) and Auchan (121 stores and 1.1 million m²). The growth today in France is almost stopped because of the regulation and of the cover margin of the territory. The majority of creations of hypermarkets are thus done by enlarging of the supermarkets. In 2001, only one hypermarket (Auchan Val d'Europe) was born. In 2002, four new creations are however planned (3 Géant and a Carrefour). Also, the hypermarket is today going through a conceptual questioning and tries to better stick to the current aspirations of the customers. Principal sign names: E. Leclerc, Carrefour, Auchan, Géant, Cora, Hyper U, Rond Point, Migros, Intermarché, Super U, Hyper Champion...
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·  Garden-center
A garden-centre is a commercial establishment, often of important size, which offers, in assisted self-service, a wide set of articles and material for the gardener amator. Located mainly at the periphery of the great agglomerations, it generally offers a surface of exposure sale, a seedbed and a parking place. This term excludes the stores like LISA (agricultural self-service). Principal signs: Truffaut, Jardiland, Magasin Vert, Gamm Vert, Botanic...
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·  Self-service
By "self-service", we indicate a method of sale according to which the customer, inside a store, chooses goods freely and takes possession of it by using a basket or a carriage, without the intervention of a salesman. The control of the purchases and their payment are carried out at the exit.
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·  Convenience store or corner shop
A convenience store is a small store (approximately 50 m²) proposing commercial equipment, mainly food. Generally, these stores propose rather broad schedules of opening. Principal signs: Petit Casino, Huit à 8, Franprix, Spar, Vival...
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·  Variety store
The variety store is a convenience store of retail sale located in urban zone (on 500 to 3000 m²), offering multiple rays and selling in self-service or free choice a large but not very major set of consumer goods (7000 to 10,000 references), in a low range of price, with a reduced service. Some offer added to the bazaar and the textile, food rays almost always exploited in self-service. They can constitute, according to their surface of sale, a supermarket integrated into the variety store. At the first place, these establishments were indicated, in France, under the name of "magasins à prix uniques". The first variety store was open in 1929 in Paris. Since Prisunic was absorbed by Monoprix in 1998, Monoprix (238 stores) became practically the only actor of the French market positioned on this crenel, and went through a true change these last years towards the concept of "Citymarché". The term of "magasin populaire" is not indeed suitable any more insofar as the positioning of Department stores became very qualitative, which thus excludes the practice from keen prices compared to the other forms of trade. Principal sign names: Monoprix, Inno
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·  Brand names of distributor & MDD
The brand name is the sum of the contents of a product: its properties, and of the image- container of this one and its manufacturer, who allows to the consumer his identification and the repetition of his purchase. In the case of ' brand name, the owner of the brand name is the distributor, and the manufacturer it being most generally an industrialist subcontractor. The consumer chooses it for his quality, his price, and for the guarantee of the brand name.
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·  Hardware discounter, or low assortment discount store
A hardware discounter is a store of retail sale proposing an average surface of 600 m². The personal is reduced there, the presentation of the products in summary rays, the set limited to the basic commodities (1000 references maximum). The stores of hardware discount propose low prices, none or a few national brand names, but distribution brands or products without brand names. Since 1992, the stores of hardware discount represent the big majority of the openings of Department stores in France. We count today 2,783 hardware discount stores in France. The most important stores are Lidl with 951 stores, Aldi with 444 and ED with 439 stores. We should stay aware that, in front of the difficulty encountered to obtain opening authorizations, many creations are carried out with a surface slightly lower than 300 m² (by law Raffarin), with enlarging projects in a near future. Principal stores: Aldi Marché, Ed, Leader Price, Le Mutant, Lidl, Netto, Norma, Penny Market...
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·  Merchandising
The term "merchandising" means the whole technical way of making benefits with a group of products implemented in order to increase profitability.
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·  Branch of sale
A branch of sale is a commercial establishment attached to a central directory, but which does not have the legal entity.
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·  Superette : small supermarket
A superette is a small surface of retail trade with food prevalence, with a surface from 120 to 400 m². Principal signs: Marché Plus, G20, Coccinnelle, Ecomarché, Marché U...
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·  Supermarket
The term "supermarket" indicates a store of retail sale with food predominance, proposing a surface of sale ranging between 400 and 2500 m², whose food set includes 2500 to 3500 products for a total offer in self-service from 3000 to 5000 products. The first supermarket was open in 1957 in Paris. In 2001, we count 5 612 supermarkets in France. The first three signs are respectively Intermarché (1,501 stores), Champion (943) and Super U (538). The size of the supermarkets increases today, and each year, a certain number of them increase to become small hypermarkets (sometimes also called "TGS"). Principal signs: Intermarché, Champion, Super U, Casino, Atac, Match, Ecomarché, Marché U...
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·  Trade marketing
The trade marketing consists in developing specific partnerships or agreements between distributors and producers on certain specific products in order to anticipate and to satisfy the request of the consumer.
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·  LTV - Long-term Value
From each customer. What each customer will bring in the future, because a customer can return in a store, without even having a promotion, and buy again: It is the development of consumer loyalty
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·  Collect of information
All the data relating to the products - registered in code-bars - and to the customers - in the discount cards - are collected at the time the customers reach the cashiers.
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·  Dataware House
The information collected at the cashier is stored on a gigantic data base, called warehouse of data, installed on host computers. The most powerful groups of distribution keep in memory the contents of all the carriages passed to their cashiers lasting at least a year.
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·  Datamining
The billions of data recorded in these electronic warehouses are screened by very sophisticated software. A fine analysis based on algorithms makes it possible to release from the tendencies on the user profiles.
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